Elizabethan Foreign Policy

Paige Waller
Note by Paige Waller, updated more than 1 year ago


A2 History Note on Elizabethan Foreign Policy, created by Paige Waller on 03/15/2017.
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Issues of SuccessionMarriage Issues-Elizabeth- single woman- created difficulties- Many of her ministers were keen for her to marry to prevent possibility of catholic inheriting throne-Queen believed that issue of marriage and succession lay within royal prerogative and shouldn't be discussed in Parliament & Council TableCaused TensionSuitors to Elizabeth: Robert Dudley- was Elizabeth preferred choice but prospect of Elizabeth marrying Leicester horrified Sir William Cecil whose influence would have been eroded. Marriage would have created many political risks Phillip II of Spain offered hand in polite gesture to Elizabeth but lacked intent because of his Catholicsm Archduke of Ferdinand and Charles, son of Emperor Ferdinand but both were Catholic Prince ErIk of Sweden who was a Protestant suitor but Elizabeth gave little encouragement Marriage:-Issue of marriage first raised on January 1559- Liz deflected pressure away-Parliament met in 1563- Elizabeth had been stricken in October 1562- thought Elizabeth may die- caused crisis in succession-Councillors thoroughly new problems which made have been caused if Queen should have died- civil war, foreign invasion , religious strife-No consensus as to who the successor might be- potential sucqcesspts include Lady Catherine Grey, and Mary, Queen of Scots -1566 Parliament pressed Elizabeth to marry- Elizabeth reacted furiously where she banished Leicester and Earl of Pembroke from Presence Chamber and rebuked members of the councilView that marriage and succession were royal prerogative -1579 Elizabeth declared capable of bearing a child - marriage to Francois, Duke of Anjou was suggested but nothing came of the suggestionElizabeth most probably took a political decision not to marry - disadvantages of marriage outweighted advantagesJames VI of Scotland had the best hereditary claim - was a Protestant Since Elizabeth successor put in place, to stay in royal favour, Elizabeth councillors Began to woo JamesShown by actions of Robert Cecil who kept in contact with James Elizabeth refused to name a successor and theres no conclusive proof that she accepted James successionArrangements for succession already put in place without Elizabeth- due to cecilMary, Queen of ScotsRelations with Elizabeth & Mary, Queen of Scots inextricably like with issue of religion and succession.Mary had endured wrath of Protestant lords and English through her marriage to Earl of Darnley- marriage was disasterEarl of Bothwell marriage set off a brief civil war which led Mary fleeing to England in 1567Mary posed continuous problems in England because some English catholics saw Mary as rightful monarchMary became focus of plots to overthrow Elizabeth Problem heightened in 1570 with Elizabeth being excommunicated by Pope absolving English Catholics from the need to obey the sovereign.Mary Queen of Scots Plots against Elizabeth-1571 Ridolfi Plot - Conspiracy for Mary to marry Duke of Norfolk and to overthrow Elizabeth. The Ridolfi Plot resulted in Burghley ensuring the execution of Norfolk for treason-1583 Throckmorton Plot- Foreign landing in Sussex followed by overthrow of Elizabeth and replace by Mary. This plot was foiled by Sir Francis Walsinghams espionage network. As a result, the bond of association was created, it worsened anglo-spanish relations and tightened conditions of Mary captivity.1585 Parry Plot- Plot to assassinate the queen-. This plot led to acceleration of parliamentary proceedings on a bill which ensured queens safety1586- Babington Plot- Mary complicit in plot to assassinate Walsingham codebreaker,Phelippes. As a result, Burghley was able to secure execution of Mary.Trial and Execution of MaryElizabeth reluctant to press for execution of MaryDecided that Mary would face trial at Fotheringhay Castle in NorthamptonshireMany privy councillors weren't inclined to try her as they thought condemning future monarchs mum wouldn't be a good ideaMary was plainly guilty - Elizabeth command no sentenceFour months of delays during which time Elizabeth patently shrank Burghley used old tactic of parliamentary pressure to influence Elizabeth to get Mary executionParliamentt duly petitooned Elizabeth but she only signed death warrant on 1st February 1587 and gave contradictory orders.Eyes of Catholicsm- died as a martyerElizabeth feared that execution of Mary could undermine security as a monarchMonarchs like Mary were divinely ordained and to see a monarchs death could be seen as a challenge to divine lawRelations with Spain1560sCordial relations mosts of 1560sRelations began to deteriorate towards end of the decade:Trading activity of John Hawkins. This is because Hawkins attempted to break Spanish trading monopoly in Caribbean. This infuriated Spanish so in September 1568 fleet was blockaded in San Juan de Ulua and two ships only escaped.Situation in the Netherlands where Phillip II wanted a tighter control of political organisation in the Netherlands. Phillip wanted to help root out heresy in Netherlands. As a result, Elizabeth received pressure from Protestant councillors to ad Dutch Protestant who feared danger. Elizabeth reluctant to take action, as she would have qualms about aiding rebels who were fighting sovereign authority.English found ways to harass the Spanish. Shown in November 1568, a storm forced several Spanish vessels carrying 400,000 flrorins which was intended to pay army of the Duke of Alba, Phillips general in the Netherlands- had to seek shelter in English ports- Elizabeth impounded the money.Anglo-Spanish and Anglo-Dutch trade , Phillips encouragement of Northern Rebellion in 1569, Ridolfi Plot in 1571and excommunication of Elizabeth in 1570.1570-1587_1572- Elizabeth contributed significantly to the deterioration of Anglo-Spanish relations by expelling sea beggars from English ports. The sea beggars landing in the Dutch port of Brielle and their occupation of the port, sparked off full scale revolt against the rule of Spain1576- By this time, all of the provinces of the Netherlands had risen against the atrocities by the Spanish army. Produced the Pacificiation of Ghent, which called for the expulsion of all foreign troops and restoration of the provinces autonomy which was favoured by Elizabeth-Provinces quarrelled amongst themselves and French prepared to invade the Netherlands -To try and retain English influence in Netherlands considered marriage to French Duke of Anjou-Netherland situation got worse as divisions Among provinces led to two separate entities- Union of Arras in South/Catholc and Union of Utrecht in North which was ProtestantUnion of Arras made peace with Spanish - new government general Duke of Parma created.1580 Spanish annexed power in Portugal-Elizabeth adopted a more outward anti-spanish position : Supported Portuguese pretender Don Antonio Knighted Francis Drake on circumnavigating around the globe treated the Spanish ambassador comtemptuously Caused high tensions in between coutriesAfter 1580- situation in Netherlands deteriorated for England as Parmas reconquest of north gained momentumProtestant only had Holland and Zeeland1584- Rebel leader William of Orange assassinated in 1584Treaty of Joinville in 1584 with Phillip II and Catholic League in France - alarmed Elizabeth as alliance include Guise family leaving Phillip no reason to not support Mary, Queen of Scots.1585-1587Elizabeth made alliance with Dutch Protestant Rebels at Treaty of Nonsuch in 1585. As a result, sent troops over to Netherlands under command of Earl of Leicester: Troops were ill disciplined due to lack of pay- as a result alienated the Dutch Dutch felt betrayed when William Stanley and Rowland Yorke deserted to join Parma English Commanders quarrelled among themselves Leicester quarrelled with the Dutch Leicester resigned his command in January 1588. The whole incident encouraged Phillip II to think he could exploit the divisionsSpanish ArmadaPhillip convinced he was doing gods work, engaging in catholic crusadeSpanish fleet was huge with vessels being commandeered by PortgueseSailing of Spanish ships delayed - due to the successful English attack on Spanish ships on harbour of Cadiz in April 1587Armada set sail from La Coruna on 22nd July 1588 with the objective to reach port of Gravelines, intended Spanish army board ships so invasion pf England would be launchedSighted off the coast of Cornwall on 29th JulyBattle from 30th July and 6th AugustArmada ended due to unfavourable winds to try to return to Spain by the hazardous route of sailing north towards then back south past Ireland.1588-1604War with Spain dragged on for a further 16 years

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