Hippocrates-The four humours. Believed that when people were ill, their humours were unbalanced. Therefore they must have a surplus or deficit of each. Galen-Theory of opposites. Believed that too much Phlegm-water & cold, must eat hot peppers to counter it. If you had a temperature, eat cucumber which will cool you down.
c1350-Medieval/Middle AgesThe Church uses Galen's texts (over 350) and his teachings as the only medical reference because they agree with the Bible. First European Medical School set up in 10th century-teaching based on his ideas and texts. Students had no practical experience.Learning increased during 12th century. New interest in astrology and stars. Star signs linked to Greek idea of four elements. Star signs were used as basis for deciding when operations should take place for example doctors believed that an operation on the head should be avoided when the moon is in the sign of Aries. Galen's ideas were popular for so many centuries purely because the Church agreed with them. Since the Church provided answers for things people were scared of, they believed in the Church's teachings therefore believing in Galen.
The Black Death-1348 (first one) Also known as the great Plague, the Black Death killed thousands upon thousands of people with no solutions clear. People had to come up with their own remedies which clearly did nothing such as covering the buboes (this was called bubonic plague because the lymph glands swelled into "buboes" and sometimes there was internal bleeding amongst other things) with bread and burying it; lighting a fire in the room etc. Because people were so religious, they believed it was the work of God, a punishment for their suffering so groups of fanatics known as "flagellants" would walk to church and whip themselves, sacrificing themselves to God in the hope that this would be repenting for their sins.
"Doctors" in the middle ages. Who would you go to if you were ill? There were several options including: The trained physician: -Went to medical school and passed some exams on Galen's work.-Had little to no practical experience-Based treatment/diagnosis on Galen's teachings and astrology. Therefore the treatment was most likely to be bloodletting. -Can be expensive. The Apothecary-trained with no medical qualifications-mixes ingredients for the physician-slightly cheaper than physician-Will make you personal mixtureThe barber-surgeon-practices bloodletting, can also pull out rotten teeth and lance boils. -uses no anaesthetics and low success rate for surgery-no trained or respected by physicians-can also cut hair Hospital-Only used for old/specific illnesses.-run by monks and nuns-Christianity values caring for others-after Reformations in 16th century some were run by charitiesHousewife-physician-knew traditional remedies passed down from generations in the family-Able to deal with broken bones & childbirth -used remedies based on herbs and blants -lady of manor who would treat her servants or families living on manor land.