BIOLOGY B3-Removing Water Products, Kidney Treatments, Body Temp, Blood Glucose Control

OhReallyOReilly
Flashcards by OhReallyOReilly, updated more than 1 year ago
OhReallyOReilly
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GCSE Science (Biology ) Flashcards on BIOLOGY B3-Removing Water Products, Kidney Treatments, Body Temp, Blood Glucose Control, created by OhReallyOReilly on 03/30/2015.

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<REMOVING WASTE PRODUCTS> -Must be removed from the body before they can cause harm >CARBON DIOXIDE--->Produced in cells by respiration--->Removed from the body through lungs when we breathe out. >UREA--->Produced in the liver from the breakdown of amino acids---> Removed from the body by kidneys in urine -UREA is toxic and will damage the body if it builds up in large quantities
<PROCESS IN THE KIDNEY> -When blood enters the kidney: 1) It is FILTERED to remove some substances 2) Some substances are REABSORBED back into the blood: -All Sugars -Any Dissolved ions needed by the body -As much water as the body needs 3) The remaining water, excess ions and UREA from URINE .
<DIALYSIS> -Involves diverting the blood through an 'artificial kidney' machine that cleans it and returns it to the body -Must be carried out every 2-3 days, usually at a hospital <KIDNEY TRANSPLANT> -This involves replacing the damaged kidney with a healthy kidney from a donor.
<ADVANTAGES OF DIALYSIS> -There is no need to wait for donated organs -There is no need for a tissue match -There is no need to take immunosuppressant drugs -There is no surgery involved <DISADVANTAGES OF DIALYSIS> -Patients need to attend hospital regularly -During treatment, patients are not able to move around easily -the treatment occurs outside the body -Patients might need to control their diet and fluid intake -A constant power supply is needed to run the machine
<ADVANTAGES OF KIDNEY TRANSPLANT> -A donated kidney should last for many years -Once they have recovered from the operation, patients are able to move around normally <DISADVANTAGES OF KIDNEY TRANSPLANT> -There is a shortage of donors -The tissue type of the patient and donor organ need to match -The size and age of the donor organ must be suitable -Organs may be rejected and will have to be removed -Patients need immunosuppressant drugs treatment -Surgery puts a strain on the body
<SWEATING> -One way we keep cool is by sweating -As the body gets hotter, more sweat is produced to cool the body--->More sweat means more water is lost--->More water must be taken in as food or drink to replace the lost water (When the body gets hot, pale skin becomes pinker as more blood flows through the skin) <THE THERMOREGULATORY CENTRE> -The thermoregulatory centre in the brain monitors and controls core body temperature(37oC) -RECEPTORS in the thermoregulatory centre detect temperature of blood in the brain -Receptors in the skin detect temperature of the skin, these impulses are sent to the thermoregulatory centre
<COOLING DOWN> -If core temps are too high: -Blood vessels supplying the skin capillaries DILATE (get wider) -More blood flows through the skin capillaries near skin surface, so more heat is transferred to the cooler environment -Sweat glands release more sweat -The sweat evaporates transferring heat to the environment .
<BLOOD GLUCOSE CONTROL> -The concentration of glucose in the blood is monitored and controlled by the pancreas .
<INSULIN> -Insulin is a hormone. -Blood glucose concentration is too high, e.g. just after a meal ---> Insulin is released by the pancreas into the blood ---> Insulin causes cells (especially in muscles and the liver) to take up glucose from the blood <GLUCAGON> -Glucagon is a hormone. -Bloody glucose concentration is too low, e.g. hours after meal ---> Glucagon is released by the pancreas into the blood ---> Glucagon causes glycogen stores to be broken down to glucose, which is released into the blood -Glucose is stored in cells as glycogen
<TYPE 1 DIABETES> -Type 1 diabetes, also know as INSULIN-DEPENDANT diabetes, normally occurs suddenly in childhood -The body is not able to produce its own insulin. This is thought to be caused by the immune systems attacking the insulin-producing BETA CELLS. -Type 1 diabetes can be controlled with regular insulin injections and the careful management of diet and exercise -Doctors can transplant a pancreas successfully, but it is expensive, risky and not enough donors <TYPE 2 DIABETES> -Type 2 diabetes, also know as INSULIN-INDEPENDENT diabetes, occurs mainly in people over 40, however it is becoming increasingly common in adolescents -This condition is caused by glycoprotein receptors in the body cells losing their responses to insulin, or an inadequate supply of insulin from the pancreas -Type 2 diabetes can be controlled by careful regulation of diet and exercise
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