The Geneva Spirit and Conference Diplomacy 1954-1961 Flashcards

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Question Answer
When was the Geneva Conference? April-July 1954
Who attended and what were they there to discuss? USA, USSR, France and Britain - to discuss Korea and Indochina
What settlement was made? An agreement was made on the Indochina War 1946-1954
Did all the parties sign the agreement? All but the US did, the US refused to sign it but pledged to not undermine it
Clauses of the agreement made 1. Ceasefire declared and French troops to be withdrawn 2. Laos and Cambodia were established as independent 3.Vietnam temporarily divided into comm North and Cap south 4. Vietnam to be reunited through free elections by 1956
What actually happened after the Geneva conference agreement? New south leader, Diem, cancelled elections as polls predicted north would win. 58-59 comm guerrillas began campaign against Diem's govt. 1960 these forces became the vietcong. Eisenhower provided large economic aid to Diem's south.
Significance of Geneva conference Agreements may not have held much weight but was the first indication of success of superpower diplomacy - Agreements were actually formed
When was the Geneva Summit? July 1955
Who attended the summit, and what did it help to do? The Big 4 - helped to shape superpower relations by establishing good working relationship between K and E. Also restarted face to face diplomacy which ceased since Potsdam 1945
What issues could agreement not be reached on? 1.Germany 2. European Security Arrangements 3. Open Skies Initiative
Why couldn't agreement be reached on Germany? USSR wanted neutral Germany - US turned this down as they thought it would increase Soviet influence in central eu and undermine FDR's pro west stance. West also refused to recognise East Germany. West wanted free elections - Soviets wanted negotiation between two halves of Germany. Soviets feared that a united Germany in a free election would join West in alliance against USSR.
Why couldn't agreement be made on European Security arrangements? Soviets wanted a collective security system - removing NATO and the Warsaw Pact - West saw this as a communist scheme to dismantle NATO
What was Open Skies and why couldn't an agreement be reached on it? Eisenhower's Open skies - in order to prevent surprise attacks and verify arms agreements, both powers should be able to take aerial photos of the others air space - K rejected this an Espionage
Significance of Geneva Summit May have been a lot of disagreement but changed tone of superpower relations, Russian paper talked of 'Geneva spirit' there were hints of a Thaw in relations
When was K's visit to the US/Camp David summit Sept 1959
Why were both leaders hopeful of agreement? Khrushchev - Anti-comm Dulles had just died, hoped that deal might at last be possible. Eisenhower - Wanted a substantial agreement before he left his presidency
What were the results of the Camp David Summit? Built on the relationship established at Geneva - 2 leaders agreed to full summit in 1960 and resolved to settle disputes peacefully
What important issues were the leaders unable to agree upon at Camp David? Germany and disarmament
When was the Paris Summit? May 1960
Why was the Paris Summit less successful than the previous summits? Both leaders adopted a harder stance
Why did both leaders adopt a Harder stance US - France and West Germany were worried that USSR would give ground to USSR on key issues like Germany. USSR - China accused them of being soft on West
What were the results of the summit? Nothing of significance - both sides not keen on negotiating - U2 spy plane incident of May 1960 led to rapid collapse of the summit
When was the Vienna summit? June 1961
Who attended? Khrushchev and newly elected Kennedy
What stance did Khrushchev adopt and why? Aggressive - wanted to capitalise of Kennedy's inexperience and his recent humiliation at the Bay of Pigs
What did Khrushchev demand/lay down at this summit? 1. USSR would continue to support 'wars of national liberation' against capitalist regimes 2. West should recognise sovereign status of East Germany 3. The Berlin Question should be settled on Soviet terms within 6 months.
What was the only constructive result of the Vienna summit? Establishment of an independent and neutral Laos
Significance of the Vienna summit Kennedy was shaken but didn't back down. Khrushchev misjudged Kennedy as weak, mistake that would be revealed in the Cuban missile Crisis
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