Chronic and Acute inflammation

Chloe Zaydner
Flashcards by Chloe Zaydner, updated more than 1 year ago
Chloe Zaydner
Created by Chloe Zaydner over 6 years ago
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Flashcards on Chronic and Acute inflammation, created by Chloe Zaydner on 04/16/2014.
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Question Answer
What are the 5 cardinal signs of Acute Inflammation
What are the 6 stages of emigration of neutrophils? Rolling (selectins), Firm adhesion (integrin to ICAM1), Diapedesis (CD31 cell-to-cell adhesion molecule), Chemotaxis (C5a and LTB4), Phagocytosis (C3b and Ig) and finally Killing of bacteria (using superoxides and lysozyme
What stimulates release of acute phase proteins? TNF-a, IL-6 and IL-1
What are the acute phase proteins which AREN'T present in normal situations? CRP and serum amyloid A
Why do blood levels of acute phase proteins rise during inflammation? release of cytokines (IL-1, 6 & TNF-a) causes liver to synthesise more acute phase proteins.
What effect do prostaglandins have on endogenous pyrogen production? Prostaglandins feed back on endogenous pyrogens and have a negative feedback mechanism.
How does a transudate and an exudate differ? Transudates are ultrafiltrates of the blood with little protein and few cells so appear grossly clear. Exudates appear grossly cloudy due to high amounts of protein and cells.
What type of cell is frequently seen in purulent discharge? Neutrophils
What occurs during the inflammatory phase of wound healing? Haemostasis and acute inflammation
What 3 things occur during the proliferation phase of wound healing? Fibrosis, angiogenesis and epithelisation (granulation tissue is formed!)
What happens in the maturation phase? Collagen type III is remodelled to collagen type I
What are the signs of healthy granulation tissue? Pinky-red; does not bleed easily; granular and uneven.
Describe the key points of bone remodelling? Fracture causes rip in periosteum and fragments. Fragments necrose and a haematoma forms at fracture site (primary callus). The primary callus undergoes osteoclastic bone removal and structured lammelar bone replaces woven bone (secondary callus). Remodelling has finished.
How does gut repair? Instead of forming granulation tissue from the margins, the serosal surface forms capillary buds - islands of granulation tissue that form fibrous adhesions between loops of gut (can lead to obstruction!)
What is fibrinous inflammation and how does it differ from fibrosis? Fibrinous inflammation is an acute response leading to increased vascular permeability. There is emigration of neutrophils and fibrinogen is polymerised into strands by plasmin but is disorganised; a scaffold for subsequent fibrosis.
What is 'fibrosis'? a sequel to chronic inflammation. Infiltration with mononucleur cells (macrophages, lymphocytes, plasma cells) tissue destruction and repair.
What are two cell types that can form from a macrophage involved in granulomatous inflammation? Epitheliod macrophage and giant cells
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