Taste and Smell

natalieclark29
Mind Map by , created almost 6 years ago

Degree Psychology (Perception) Mind Map on Taste and Smell, created by natalieclark29 on 12/09/2013.

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natalieclark29
Created by natalieclark29 almost 6 years ago
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Taste and Smell
1 Taste
1.1 5 basic tastes
1.1.1 Umami
1.1.2 Sweet
1.1.3 Bitter
1.1.4 Sour
1.1.5 Salt
1.2 Taste buds
1.2.1 Create neural signals
1.2.1.1 Sent via cranial nerves
1.2.2 Embedded in papillae
1.2.3 Contain taste receptor cells
1.3 Coding of taste quality
1.3.1 Labelled lines
1.3.1.1 Each taste fibre carries a particular taste quality?
1.3.2 Patterns of activity across different taste neurons?
1.3.3 Examples of both in other senses
1.4 Genetic variation
1.4.1 Arthur Fox (1931)
1.4.2 Dennis Drayna (2003)
1.4.3 Supertasters
1.4.3.1 Different genes for PROP receptors
1.4.3.2 More taste buds
1.4.4 Hardwired taste preferences
1.4.4.1 Evidence from babies
1.4.4.2 People can be desensitised to chilli peppers
1.4.4.2.1 Only humans eat it!
2 Smell
2.1 Smelly molecules
2.1.1 Small
2.1.2 Volatile
2.1.3 Hydrophobic
2.2 Physiology
2.2.1 Air flow through nose disrupted by turbinates
2.2.1.1 Contacts with olfactory epithelium which odourants stick to
2.2.2 Nose has a cycle time of three hours during which different nostrils have different flow rates and smell different things
2.2.3 Anosmia
2.2.3.1 Cribiform plate moved backwards (usually because something has hit you in the front of your face)
2.2.4 Odours bind to olfactory cilia
2.2.4.1 Part of the OSN
2.2.4.1.1 Each OSN has a single type of odour receptor
2.2.4.1.2 5 million of these!
2.2.4.1.3 Fire once 8 binding sites are filled
2.2.4.1.4 Sends to olfactory bulb (not thalamus)
2.2.4.2 Lock and key model
2.2.4.2.1 But it is difficult to predict smell from shape...
2.2.4.3 Vibrational sensitivity?
2.2.5 300 receptor types
2.2.5.1 Generate patterns of activity in entorhinal and piriform cortices
2.2.5.1.1 Associate code pattern with object
2.3 Human pheromones?
2.3.1 VNO
2.3.1.1 Doesn't function in adult humans (but it does in foetuses)
2.3.2 HLA
2.3.2.1 MHC is present in humans as a result of this gene complex
2.3.3 Androstadienone
2.3.3.1 Metabolite of testosterone
2.4 Blindsmell
2.4.1 Brain response to concentrations below perceptual threshold?
2.4.2 Smell of tears
2.4.2.1 Chemosignal

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