Approaches & Methods for language acquisition

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mtyler12008
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Approaches & Methods for EBs

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Approaches & Methods for language acquisition
  1. Grammatical Approach
    1. Grammar- Translation Method
      1. Focused on language rules
        1. Memorization of vocabulary
          1. Application of language rules & exception to vocabulary to translate written text
            1. Isolated sentences
              1. Complex texts
                1. Not for meaning
                2. Focus was on grammatical accuracy
                  1. Students native language is not used
                  2. Focused on knowing about a language instead of emphasizing how to use the language for intended purpose, communication.
                    1. Thought that students first language "interferes" with new language acquisition and that both languages are structured differently; syntax rules can cause confusion
                      1. Memorization of language rules & sentence patterns
                        1. Nouns
                          1. Verbs
                            1. Conjuctions
                              1. Adjectives
                                1. Pronouns
                                  1. Possessive
                                  2. curriculum is sequenced and methodical
                                    1. Instruction is isolated from meaningful context
                                      1. Drills & practice focus on sentence structure
                                        1. Agreement rule
                                          1. Idiomatic usage
                                            1. Does not provide comprehensible input
                                              1. Strategies: Drills & practice Rote memorization
                                                1. Techniques: Dialogue, Repetition, Mnemonics, Kinetics
                                          2. Direct Method
                                            1. Replaced Grammatical- Translation Method
                                              1. Less focus on grammar rules & structure
                                              2. Focus on repetition & memorization of L2 patterns
                                                1. Vocabulary is taught in context through dialog and choral response
                                                2. Inferred grammar through exposure of carefully sequenced, guided instruction of L2
                                                  1. Teacher models & student practices language patterns
                                                    1. The goal is to internalize grammatical patterns
                                                  2. Students native language is not used
                                                    1. Translation is discouraged
                                                    2. Objects, photos, diagrams,& drawings used to help comprehension
                                                    3. Audiolingual Method
                                                      1. Material presented though dialogue
                                                        1. Consistent teacher feedback
                                                        2. Acquisition is "habit" formed
                                                          1. Thought that second language would become a habit through drills and dialogue which would develope language structures
                                                            1. Language acquisition through memorization & recall of L2 language patterns
                                                          2. Grammatical structures & vocabulary are taught in a highly sequential manner
                                                            1. Skills are sequenced- listening, speaking, reading, & writing
                                                            2. Use of L1 is permitted by teacher only
                                                          3. Communicative Approach
                                                            1. Focus on learning second language through communication & for communication
                                                              1. Communication for purpose
                                                                1. language embedded in social contexts
                                                                2. Provides context for authentic communication
                                                                  1. Language occurs when comprehensible input is received
                                                                    1. language rich environment
                                                                    2. Student creates & tests language hypotheses through interactions in authentic, language-rich, low-anxiety language acquisition environments
                                                                      1. student centered/ teacher facilitated language instruction
                                                                        1. Strategies: Scaffolding, Gaurded Vocabulary, Cooperative learning, Hands-on activities
                                                                          1. Techniques: Reduced use of idioms, Manipulatives & realia, Simulations/ Big books, Heterogeneous grouping
                                                                      2. fosters second language acquisition methods & strategies that mirrored the way the first language was learned
                                                                        1. focus on communication rather than rules
                                                                        2. Silent Way Method
                                                                          1. Student observes: What did you witness?
                                                                            1. Teacher silence is suppose to encourage student initiative, language production, & linguistic interaction
                                                                            2. L1 not used
                                                                              1. Focus on pronunciation & word flow
                                                                                1. Listening, speaking, correction
                                                                              2. Natural Way or Natural Approach
                                                                                1. Comprehension precedes production
                                                                                  1. Natural progression leads to production in stages
                                                                                    1. Goals guide instruction
                                                                                      1. Speaking, reading, & writing
                                                                                      2. Activities designed to lower affective filter
                                                                                        1. Teacher creates meaningful communication
                                                                                          1. Teacher modifies the language to language learners comprehension level
                                                                                      3. Suggestopedia Method
                                                                                        1. Emphasis on learner personality & motivation to knowledge
                                                                                          1. What can be learned intuitively & spontaneously
                                                                                            1. Create relaxing, stress-free learning environment
                                                                                              1. Music playing in background
                                                                                                1. Visual aids to suppprt meaning of text
                                                                                                2. Student can use L1
                                                                                                  1. Translation of text in L1- then reread text in L2
                                                                                                    1. Converse, retell, & role play
                                                                                                3. integrated Content-Based Method
                                                                                                  1. Collaborative planning, thematic units
                                                                                                    1. Emphasis on content & language objectives across curriculum
                                                                                                      1. integration of content & language objectives into one lesson
                                                                                                    2. Sheltered Instruction Method
                                                                                                      1. Hands on application
                                                                                                        1. social interaction
                                                                                                          1. Cooperative learning
                                                                                                            1. Gaurded vocabulary
                                                                                                              1. Visual support
                                                                                                              2. Integrate content & language objectives into the same lesson
                                                                                                                1. Grade level content/ teacher scaffolds instruction
                                                                                                                  1. Provides comprehensible language input & modified grade level instruction
                                                                                                            2. Cognitive Approach
                                                                                                              1. Discovering, recognizing, conceiving, judging, reasoning, & reflecting
                                                                                                                1. Active learning process
                                                                                                                  1. Social interaction
                                                                                                                2. Focus on student thought process
                                                                                                                  1. Metacognition (thinking about thinking)
                                                                                                                    1. Reflection of knowledge
                                                                                                                      1. Access background knowledge
                                                                                                                        1. Calaboration with parents
                                                                                                                      2. Emphasis on background, interactions, memory, knowledge, thinking, process, as foundations for language acquisition success in the academic context
                                                                                                                        1. Scaffolding Instruction
                                                                                                                          1. Meaningful & relevant language instruction
                                                                                                                            1. Strategies: Cooperative learning, Explicit LS instruction, Maximizing content & language objectives
                                                                                                                              1. Techniques: KWL, Questioning, Word wall, Outlines
                                                                                                                        2. CALLA Method
                                                                                                                          1. Enrich the language that CLD student uses for academic communication
                                                                                                                            1. Focus on topics from the major content areas, development of academic language skills, & explicit instruction in learning strategies
                                                                                                                              1. Listening, speaking, reading, & writing
                                                                                                                                1. Intentional focus on CALP development in L1 & L2 as related to content areas
                                                                                                                                  1. Focus on prior knowledge
                                                                                                                                2. Strategies emphasized on cognitive, metacognitive, & social/ affected strategies
                                                                                                                                  1. Active learning
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