Approaches and Methods to Second Language Instruction

michelle_johnson
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michelle_johnson
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Methods in ESL
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Approaches and Methods to Second Language Instruction
1 Approaches
1.1 Grammatical
1.1.1 Teacher Centered emphasis on the rules and structure of the targeted language
1.1.1.1 No L1 allowed in the classroom
1.1.1.2 Learners acquire language most efficiently by memorizing language rules and patterns.
1.1.1.3 Drill and Practice
1.1.2 Replaced by the Communicative and Cognitive Approaches
1.1.3 Emphasizes sentence structure, agreement rules, and idiomatic usage
1.1.4 Methods
1.1.4.1 Direct
1.1.4.1.1 Focused less on instruction of grammar rules and structures; focused more on repetition and memorization of language patterns
1.1.4.1.2 Students inferred grammar through exposure to sequenced guided instruction in the target language.
1.1.4.1.3 Teachers modeled and students practiced language patterns to reach a goal of internalizing the patterns
1.1.4.1.4 Emphasized context through use of objects, photos, diagrams, and drawings
1.1.4.2 Audiolingual
1.1.4.2.1 Developed in response to military need of quick language acquisition
1.1.4.2.2 Presented pattern drills and dialogue designed to develop grammatical structures and vocabulary in a highly sequential manner.
1.1.4.2.3 New language structures would become habit
1.1.4.2.4 Language acquisition was memorization and recall of language patterns
1.1.4.3 Grammar-Translation
1.1.4.3.1 Teacher presented language rules, the student memorized the vocabulary list
1.1.4.3.2 Students applied language rules and vocabulary terms to the translation of written text
1.1.4.3.3 Focused on grammatical accuracy; translation not for meaning
1.2 Communicative
1.2.1 Research and theory based; emphasis on communication of language
1.2.2 Derived from concerns over the ineffectiveness of grammar-based approaches in developing language learners who could use the target language in real life.
1.2.3 Focus on learning language through and for communication.
1.2.4 Memorizing patterns and rules does very little to prepare language learners for authentic language use
1.2.5 Language learners use language to communicate for a purpose.
1.2.6 The teacher is to provide context for authentic communication; language development occurs as the learner receive comprehensible input.
1.2.7 Methods
1.2.7.1 Silent Way
1.2.7.1.1 Presented learners with simple linguistic situations that they observed and described in the target language, focusing on actions they witnessed.
1.2.7.1.2 L1 not used and the teacher emphasized the pronunciation and word flow of the learner's description while encouraging target langauge produciton
1.2.7.1.3 Teacher silence was intentionally designed to encourage student initiative, language production, and linguistic interacitions.
1.2.7.2 Natural Way
1.2.7.2.1 Based on 4 general premises: Comprehension precedes production, language production emerges in stages if allowed to proceed naturally, communicative goals should guide instruction, interactive communicative activities should be designed to lower the affective filter
1.2.7.2.2 Teachers created a situation which communication was made meaningful
1.2.7.2.3 Teachers modified language to a level at which the learners could understand the messages of instruction by adapting instruction to make input comprehensible.
1.2.7.2.4 Silent period was recognized and respected, language learners built comprehension before producing language.
1.2.7.2.5 Created the foundation for the sheltered method of instruction
1.2.7.3 Suggestopedia
1.2.7.3.1 Places language teaching emphasis on learner personality and motivation as that typically placed on intellect
1.2.7.3.2 Lessons consisted of music in the background, students would read a L1 translation of text, then the teacher would remove the translation and present the same text in the target langauge.
1.2.7.3.3 Along with visual aids, students would work with the text through conversation, retelling and role playing. This would create rapid language acquisition because of the multiple modalities of working with the target language.
1.2.8 Contemporary Methods
1.2.8.1 ICB (Integrated Content-Based
1.2.8.1.1 Involves concurrent teaching of academic subject matter and second language acquisition skills.
1.2.8.1.2 The language curriculum is based on students' academic and linguistic needs.
1.2.8.1.3 Grade level teams collaborate in the development of thematic units and the planning of instruction emphasizes content and language objectives across subject areas.
1.2.8.2 Sheltered Instruction
1.2.8.2.1 Can be implemented in grade-level or in a second language classroom
1.2.8.2.2 Integrate language and content objectives in the same lesson
1.2.8.2.3 Language objectives are derived from TESOL and are linked to the CLD student's level of English proficiency. Students receive grade level instruction scaffold to provide comprehensible language input and a modified grade-level curriculum.
1.3 Cognitive
1.3.1 A product of efforts to examine and analyze the cognitive psychological side of learning, language learning, and instruction to promote language learning.
1.3.2 Concerned with discovering, recognizing, conceiving, judging, reasoning, and reflecting, their influences on or relationships to actions
1.3.3 Child Centered
1.3.4 Role of memory; long-term, short-term, and working
1.3.5 Role of knowledge; what we can declare is stored as declarative knowledge and how we can is stored as procedural, conditional knowledge is when, why, or where
1.3.6 Metacognitive knowledge is general awareness of how humans process and learn information and a person's own knowledge of his or her learning processes.
1.3.7 Methods
1.3.7.1 CALLA
1.3.7.1.1 Enrich the language of CLD students
1.3.7.1.2 Applicable for beginning, intermediate, and advanced level language learners
1.3.7.1.3 3 components: topics from major content areas, development of academic language skills, explicit instruction on learning strategies
1.3.7.1.4 Targets all literacy domains: listening, speaking, reading, and writing
1.3.7.1.5 Has emphasis on cognitive, metacognitive, and social/affective strategies
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