Factors affecting eyewitness testimony: misleading information

Daisy  U
Mind Map by Daisy U, updated more than 1 year ago
Daisy  U
Created by Daisy U almost 4 years ago
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AS - Level psychology (chapter 2 - memory ) Mind Map on Factors affecting eyewitness testimony: misleading information, created by Daisy U on 04/21/2016.

Resource summary

Factors affecting eyewitness testimony: misleading information
1 leading questions and post event discussion
1.1 leading questions
1.1.1 procedure
1.1.1.1 Loftus and Palmer
1.1.1.1.1 clips of a car accident
1.1.1.1.1.1 asked how fast the car was going
1.1.1.1.1.1.1 changed the speed: contacted bumped collided and smashed
1.1.2 findings
1.1.2.1 mean speed was higher for smashed than contacted
1.1.2.1.1 smashed was 41mph
1.1.2.1.2 contacted was 30mph
1.1.3 why do leading questions affect EWT
1.1.3.1 response bias explanation
1.1.3.1.1 wording of the question does not effect participants memories
1.1.3.1.1.1 but influences how they decide the answer
1.1.3.2 substitution explanation
1.1.3.2.1 the wording of a leading question changes the memory
1.1.3.2.1.1 participants who were given the word smashed were more likely to report broken glass
1.2 post event discussion
1.2.1 when co-witnesses discuss their EWT become contaminated
1.2.1.1 from misinformation from other witnesses with their own memories
1.2.1.1.1 procedure
1.2.1.1.1.1 Gabbert
1.2.1.1.1.1.1 pairs saw the same crime but form different angles
1.2.1.1.1.1.1.1 then they discussed before testing their recall
1.2.1.1.2 findings
1.2.1.1.2.1 71% of participants mistakenly recalled aspects of the event that they didn't see but had been told
1.2.1.1.2.1.1 in the control group (no discussion) there was 0%
1.2.1.1.2.1.1.1 go along with it to gain social approval or because they thought they were wrong
1.2.1.1.2.1.1.1.1 called memory conformity
2 evaluation
2.1 useful real life applications
2.1.1 affect how police now interview people after crimes
2.1.1.1 when EWT are very important
2.2 the tasks are artificial
2.2.1 watched film clips
2.2.1.1 different experience to seeing a real one
2.2.1.1.1 trauma may make people forget
2.2.1.1.1.1 artificial tasks - EWT may be more reliable then we think
2.3 individual differences
2.3.1 older people are less accurate than younger in EWT
2.3.1.1 Anastasi and Rhodes
2.3.1.1.1 people between 18-25 and 35-45 were more accurate then 55-78
2.3.1.1.1.1 were more accurate when it was people their own age
2.3.1.1.1.1.1 own age bias
3 evaluation +
3.1 demand characteristics
3.1.1 Zaragosa and McCloskey
3.1.1.1 answers given in a lab are a result of demand characteristics
3.1.1.1.1 don't want to let the researcher down - helpful and attentive
3.2 consequences of EWT
3.2.1 Foster
3.2.1.1 EWT can have huge consequences in the real world - not in a lab
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