1.1.1 Means that supply and
price are regulated by the
1.2.1 The state planning
February 1921. They
were responsible for
economic planning in
1.3 First Five Year Plan (October 1938-December
1.3.1 Stalin's priorities for the FFYP. 1) All
industries needed raw materials like
coal, steel, oil and iron to develop for
future industrial development. 2) The
majority of industrial labour force
were unskilled peasants. Stalin
believed that working in heavy
industry would allow the peasants to
gain the necessary skills. 3) Heavy
industry would lay the foundations
for rearmament in case of war, Stalin
believed that Russia should be ready
to defend itself in case of war.
220.127.116.11 The urban population trebeled as
peasants moved to cities. Many retrained
as engineers or administrators.
Education reformed to serve the needs
of the FYP. Universities were made
accessible to people with minimal
1.3.2 Production increased by
14% per year. An impressive
feat compared to Tsarist
and NEP achievements
1.3.3 Target meeting was a
failure as many official
targets were not met.
Officials who failed to
meet their targets were
sacked or executed.
then lied about the
amount of materials
produced. Focused on
production not quality
18.104.22.168 Improvement of living standards was never
an objective of the plan. Workers were
sustained by rations which were a poorer diet
than NEP. A seven-day working day was
introduced. Miners were allowed to work in
unsafe conditions. Lateness was criminalised.
22.214.171.124.1 Piece-work was introduced
where payment was based on
how much was produced
rather than the hours worked.
The Seven day working week
was introduced, absenteeism,
lateness and idleness were
1.3.5 Free Market
126.96.36.199 Was a market
little or no
188.8.131.52.1 A number of problems were
established through the
abolishing the free market. 1) It
encouraged the formation of
the black market. 2) There was
a shortage of consumer goods
which then increased their
value. 3) It was impossible to
police the black market
effectively. 4) "Speculators"
were the subject of show trials.
184.108.40.206 "Magnet-Mountain City" Aimed to create
Russia's largest steel factory. Was to be an
urban city with clean and modern
accommodation. Thousands of shock
workers volunteered to take part.
220.127.116.11.1 Realistically few houses were built and the majority of workers
lived in mud huts and tents with no heating or sanitation. On
average workers left Magnitogorsk after 82 days.
18.104.22.168.2.1 A definition of the First
FYP- the worship of size
for its own sake.
22.214.171.124 1) Electricity production trebled. 2) Coal and Iron output
1.4 Second Five Year
1.5 Third Five Year
1.6 Fourth Five
1.7 Fifth Five
2.1 What was collectivisation?
2.1.1 The reformation of Soviet agriculture. Stalin
planned to merge smaller farms into one
"collective farm" to operate more efficiently.
2.2 Reasons for collectivisation
2.2.1 Additional Reasons
126.96.36.199.1 An attempt to revolutionise the agraian system
188.8.131.52.1 Any peasants who refused to cooperate with the state
were shown no mercy and were essentially terrorists.
184.108.40.206.2 Stalin used the "Kulak Grain Strike" (where Kulaks
withheld grain) as an excuse to bring back grain
requisitioning. This showed the power of the peasants.
220.127.116.11.1 Grain output rose in 1926 but fell until
1929. 77 million tonnes were produced
in 1926 and 72 million in 1929
18.104.22.168.2 Harvests of 1927, 1928, 1929 were poor and increased
agricultural products. Large farms could increase efficiency
and mean less people would have to work there freeing up
manpower for industry
22.214.171.124.1 Peasants were still using traditional farming techniques and
had a lack of revolutionary spirit due to farming for
themselves and for their own profit rather than for the rest
of the country.
2.2.2 Six Factors Now To Collectivise Kolkoz
126.96.36.199 Soviet agriculture was backwards, old
fashioned and inefficient
188.8.131.52 Food was needed for workers in the
towns if the Five Year Plans were
going to work
184.108.40.206 NEP was not working. By 1928 the USSR was 20 million tonnes of
grain short to feed the towns
220.127.116.11 Town-workers were needed if the
USSR was to become modern and
industrialised peasants needed to
migrate to towns.
18.104.22.168 Cash Crops were needed if the USSR was to industrialise, peasants
needed to grow cash crops (e.g. grain) which could be exported to
raise money to buy foreign machinery and expertise.
22.214.171.124 Kulaks oppsed communism, they liked private
wealth. They hid food from cash collectors and
were influential and led peasant opinion.
2.3 The Grain Procurement Crisis 1927-1929
2.3.1 Under NEP, the government bought grain from the peasants. Poor
harvests from 1927 onwards forced the price of grain to rise. The
kulaks then started to withhold grain from the market to increase
126.96.36.199 The crisis showed to Stalin that the peasant could hold the government to ransom
and slow the process of industrialisation. Demonstrated that peasant ideology was
essentially capitalist and in conflict with the government. The crisis was used as
evidence against NEP and undermined Bukharin.
188.8.131.52.1 Stalin's response
184.108.40.206.1.1 Winter 1928-29: Reintroduced rationing End of 1928:
State resumed grain requisitioning under Article 107 of
the Soviet Criminal Code, grain handling could be
punished. Poorer peasants rewarded for informing the
authorities about kulaks. Spring 1929: Started to
requisition meat and revised Article 61 of the Criminal
Code: police powers to send kulaks to labour camps for
up to two years for failure to "carry out general state
2.3.2 Liquidation of the Kulaks
220.127.116.11 A kulak is a wealthy peasant
18.104.22.168.1 Three stages of liquidation: i)
Dukulakisation (marked the
end of capitalism and
independent farming in the
countryside) ii) Vastly
increased the speed of
collectivisation. iii) The call to
liquidate the kulaks entailed
immediate collectivisation of
all farming in Russia.
22.214.171.124.1.1 Effects of
appealed to the
to lead the way.
would be able to
use the kulak's
share a much
126.96.36.199.1.1.1 The 25 thousanders were
Communist industrial workers
who went into the countryside
to offer techinical help to the
peasants. In reality they were
used to enforce dekulakisation
and find secret stores of grain.
2.4 Why did Stalin stop
2.4.1 "Dizzy with success" Stalin
defended his policy and argued
that his target for
collectivisation had been met
so it would be suspended.
188.8.131.52 Stalin admitted collectivisation caused
problems (let alone that so many had
been killed) but the article hinted that
the party thought it had gone too far.
people exiled as part of
150,000 kulak families
sent to SIberia. 1930:
240,000. 1931: 285,000. In
some cases, 10% of
peasants in a single
village were exiled.