Demography of the family

Phoebe Fletcher
Mind Map by Phoebe Fletcher, updated more than 1 year ago
Phoebe Fletcher
Created by Phoebe Fletcher over 5 years ago
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A Level Sociology (Family) Mind Map on Demography of the family, created by Phoebe Fletcher on 02/04/2015.
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Demography of the family
1 Migration
1.1 Occurs because of push and pull factors
1.1.1 Push factors
1.1.1.1 Escape poverty
1.1.1.2 Unemployment
1.1.1.3 Persecution
1.1.2 Pull factors
1.1.2.1 Job opportunities
1.1.2.2 Study
1.1.2.3 Higher standars of living
1.1.2.4 Political/Religous freedom
1.1.2.5 Joining relatives
1.2 In 2011, the main factors for people migrating to the UK were
1.2.1 Formal education
1.2.2 Work related reasons
1.2.3 Joining their families
1.3 Patterns
1.3.1 Until the 1930's and during the 60s, and 70s, there was a decrease in net migration
1.3.2 During the 30s until around 1945 there was an increase in net migration
1.3.2.1 This was caused by WWII, as people would migrate to England to avoid Nazis prosecution
1.3.3 Since 1980, we have had a increase in net migration
1.3.4 The trend of migration in 2011 was:
1.3.4.1 15% british citizens returning home
1.3.4.2 1/3 were EU citizens
1.3.4.3 1/3 were citizens of the new common wealth
1.3.4.4 6% were citizens of old common wealth countries
1.4 In 2011 the main reason for emigrating was EU citizens returning to their orgin country
2 The decline in Death rate, Infant Mortality rate and Increase in Life expectancy
2.1 In 1902, the death rate was 18 per 1000
2.1.1 The death rate in 2010 was 9 per 1000
2.2 Improved hygiene, sanitation and medicine
2.2.1 Construction of the sewer system
2.2.2 Advances in science and medicine
2.2.2.1 Majority of death are caused by non-infectious diseases, such as Cancer
2.2.3 People better educated about the importance of hygiene
2.3 Health education
2.3.1 More awareness on what to look out for
2.3.1.1 People get themselves to a GP when something seems wrong, so diseases can be found, and treated earlier
2.3.2 Improved education on health
2.3.3 Most people now know basic first aid, and can deal with a emergency
2.4 Better Welfare, and Healthcare
2.4.1 Welfare system introduced in 1948
2.4.2 NHS
2.4.2.1 Free
2.4.2.2 Lead to safer, childbirths
2.4.2.2.1 Decrease in infant mortality
2.4.2.2.2 Decrease in mothers dieing during childbirth
2.5 Higher standards of living
2.5.1 Mckeown (1976)
2.5.1.1 Suggested that improvements in standards of living, and environment has lead to an increased life expectancy
2.5.2 Standards of living have improved
2.5.2.1 Better wages
2.5.2.2 Better food
2.5.2.3 Running hot water
2.5.2.4 Better knowledge of body
2.5.2.5 Better food technology
2.6 Improved working conditions
2.6.1 Technology has taken over the most dangerous jobs
2.6.2 Acts put in place to protect the rights of workers
2.6.3 Factory machinery is better and safer
2.6.4 Work is less physically demanding
2.6.5 More leisure time
3 Ageing Population
3.1 The average age of the populationn is getting higher
3.1.1 Larger proportion over the retirement age
3.1.1.1 Increase dependency ratio
3.2 Can lead to higher taxes on the economically active
3.3 Higher levels of government spending
3.3.1 Health and social services
3.3.2 Residential and nursing home increases
3.3.3 Welfare benefits
3.3.4 42% of government spending goes to the elderly
3.4 Elderly relatives can help with childcare, putting less of a strain on the childcare system
3.5 Younger people find it harder to find homes, as the elderly live in them for longer
3.6 Families may have to care for their elder relatives, if their pension scheme runs dry
3.7 Their may be overcrowding/emotional strain if an elderly moves in with his/her children
3.8 There could be a return of the Classic Extended family, or an increase of Singletons
4 Decline in Birth rate, Fertilaty rate, and average family size
4.1 The UK's Birth rate in 2010 was 1.98
4.1.1 Similar to the high birth rates in Europe (France, Scandinavia, Ireland, Belgium)
4.1.2 Higher then that of China or Brazil
4.1.3 Lower than the USA, South Africa, India
4.2 Improved Contrception
4.2.1 Made it easier for couples to wait longer, before having children
4.2.2 Older couples have less children
4.2.3 Lead to improved family planning
4.3 Compulsory education
4.3.1 Children are no longer and economic asset
4.3.2 Children have become an economic liability
4.3.3 Parents nowadays support children into University, and therefore into their 20s
4.4 Declining Infant Mortality rate means that it is safer to have less children
4.5 Changing role of women
4.5.1 Women now have different priorities
4.5.1.1 No longer want to spend time on child bearing/raising
4.5.1.2 McRobbies (2008) argues that the common aspiration of motherhood has been replaced with the desire for qualifications
4.5.2 Many women in paid employment have to combine this with childcare, and will therefore limit the amount of children they have, or put them off until their career is established
4.6 Changing Values
4.6.1 Having children is now linked with a loos in lesiure time
4.6.2 Having children is linked with a loss of freedom
4.7 It is a lot more expensive to have children, compared with the past
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