1.1 states that we are
constantly observing others
1.1.1 based on the principles
of operant conditioning
1.1.2 Aggression is learnt as a result
of modelling, reinforcement and
1.2 Children are more likely
to imitate behaviour if
they like the model and
can identify with them.
1.3 Key Concepts
1.3.1 Observational Learning- Learning
through the observation of a model.
1.3.2 Modelling- people
with status or
1.3.3 Identification- identifying with a model
and adopting the behaviour of others.
2.1 Each child is taken into a room
with attractive toys, including
potato prints in a corner.
2.1.1 remained in
the room for 10
2.1.2 they were invited by the
model to join a game- to
settle the child.
188.8.131.52 exposed to the behaviour of the model
matching their conditioned group e.g.
agressive or non-aggressive
2.1.3 Response measures: 1.
Imitation of physical
aggression (for example,
punching the doll in the
nose) 2. Imitative verbal
aggression (for example,
repeating the phrases
"Pow!" or "Sock him in the
nose". 3. Imitative
responses (for example
child repeats ?He keeps
coming back for more?)
2.2 matched pairs
were tested for levels
2.3 STAGE 1: Child is
taken to the
ignored bobo and
assembled toys in a
condition: after 1
minute of assembling
toys, model became
aggressive to bobo in a
stylised and distinctive
way. After 10 minutes,
they took the child to a
new games room.
2.3.1 STAGE 2: The new room has attractive children’s toys. They
were told these were the best toys and they had reserved them
for the other children. This was mild aggression arousal.
184.108.40.206 STAGE 3: The child was taken to a new room with aggressive and non-aggressive toys.The child was kept in this room for 20 minutes. Behaviour
was observed by judges through a one-way mirror. Observations were made at 5-second intervals giving 240 response units for each child.
3.1 Aim: to investigate the
observational learning of
3.1.1 To see whether children
would reproduce aggressive
behaviour once the model
3.2.1 1) Participants exposed to aggressive models will
reproduce aggressive acts like those of the models.
3.2.2 2) Participants exposed to a non-aggressive model would
be less aggressive than those without the rolemodel.
3.2.3 3) They will imitate the behaviour of a same-sex model to
the same degree than the model of the opposite sex.
3.2.4 4) Boys will be more inclined than girls
to imitate aggressive behaviour.
3.3.1 72 participants
220.127.116.11 opportunity sample, nursery children from Stanford University.
18.104.22.168 36M 36F aged 37-69 months
22.214.171.124 Aggressive condition- 24 participants, observed an
adult being aggressive with a bobo doll. 12M 12F (6
same sex model and 6 opposite, for M and F)
126.96.36.199 Non-aggressive condition- 24 participants, observed adult playing
peacefully, 12M 12F (6 same sex model, 6 opposite, for M and F)
188.8.131.52 Control group- 24 participants, no model
3.3.2 3 adults- 1F 1M (models) and female experimenter
184.108.40.206 To test the
rated by two
ratings showed a
4.1.1 A lab experiment allows precise
control of variables, such as the
gender of the model, the time the
children observed the model, the
behaviour of the model and so on.
4.1.2 Standardised procedures and instructions
were used allowing for replicability.
4.2.1 Ethical issues- lack of informed
consent, children may have
suffered long-term consequences
from being subjected to and
imitating violent behaviour.
4.2.2 Snapshot study- cannot discover if a single
exposure to aggression can have long-term effects.
4.2.3 Low ecological validity as the model and the child
are strangers. This is unlike 'normal' modelling
which often takes place within the family.
5.1 Children who
those in the
5.2 More partial and non-imitative
aggression among children in
aggressive condition. The
difference for non-imitative
aggression was small.
5.3 The girls in the aggressive conditions
showed more physical aggression if the
model was male but more verbal
aggression if the model was female.
5.4 Boys were more likely
to imitate same-sex
models than girls.
5.5 Boys imitated more physically aggressive
acts than girls. There was little difference in
the verbal aggression between boys and girls.