Bandura 1961

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Bandura, A., Ross, D. & Ross, S.A. (1961) Transmission of aggression through imitation of aggressive models.

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katherine.crick
Created by katherine.crick over 5 years ago
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Bandura 1961
1 Social Learning Theory
1.1 states that we are constantly observing others
1.1.1 based on the principles of operant conditioning
1.1.2 Aggression is learnt as a result of modelling, reinforcement and punishment.
1.2 Children are more likely to imitate behaviour if they like the model and can identify with them.
1.3 Key Concepts
1.3.1 Observational Learning- Learning through the observation of a model.
1.3.2 Modelling- people with status or influence.
1.3.3 Identification- identifying with a model and adopting the behaviour of others.
2 Procedure
2.1 Each child is taken into a room with attractive toys, including potato prints in a corner.
2.1.1 remained in the room for 10 minutes
2.1.2 they were invited by the model to join a game- to settle the child.
2.1.2.1 exposed to the behaviour of the model matching their conditioned group e.g. agressive or non-aggressive
2.1.3 Response measures: 1. Imitation of physical aggression (for example, punching the doll in the nose) 2. Imitative verbal aggression (for example, repeating the phrases "Pow!" or "Sock him in the nose". 3. Imitative non-aggressive verbal responses (for example child repeats ?He keeps coming back for more?)
2.2 matched pairs design- children were tested for levels of aggression
2.2.1 4 5-point scales, physical aggression, verbal aggression, aggression towards inanimate objects, aggressive inhibition.
2.3 STAGE 1: Child is taken to the experimental room. NON AGGRESSIVE condition: model ignored bobo and assembled toys in a gentle manner. AGGRESSIVE condition: after 1 minute of assembling toys, model became aggressive to bobo in a stylised and distinctive way. After 10 minutes, they took the child to a new games room.
2.3.1 STAGE 2: The new room has attractive children’s toys. They were told these were the best toys and they had reserved them for the other children. This was mild aggression arousal.
2.3.1.1 STAGE 3: The child was taken to a new room with aggressive and non-aggressive toys.The child was kept in this room for 20 minutes. Behaviour was observed by judges through a one-way mirror. Observations were made at 5-second intervals giving 240 response units for each child.
3 Method
3.1 Aim: to investigate the observational learning of aggression.
3.1.1 To see whether children would reproduce aggressive behaviour once the model was removed.
3.2 Hypotheses
3.2.1 1) Participants exposed to aggressive models will reproduce aggressive acts like those of the models.
3.2.2 2) Participants exposed to a non-aggressive model would be less aggressive than those without the rolemodel.
3.2.3 3) They will imitate the behaviour of a same-sex model to the same degree than the model of the opposite sex.
3.2.4 4) Boys will be more inclined than girls to imitate aggressive behaviour.
3.3 Participants
3.3.1 72 participants
3.3.1.1 opportunity sample, nursery children from Stanford University.
3.3.1.2 36M 36F aged 37-69 months
3.3.1.3 Aggressive condition- 24 participants, observed an adult being aggressive with a bobo doll. 12M 12F (6 same sex model and 6 opposite, for M and F)
3.3.1.4 Non-aggressive condition- 24 participants, observed adult playing peacefully, 12M 12F (6 same sex model, 6 opposite, for M and F)
3.3.1.5 Control group- 24 participants, no model
3.3.2 3 adults- 1F 1M (models) and female experimenter
3.3.2.1 To test the inter-rater reliability, 51 children were rated by two observers and their ratings compared. The ratings showed a high reliability correlation.
4 Evaluation
4.1 Strengths
4.1.1 A lab experiment allows precise control of variables, such as the gender of the model, the time the children observed the model, the behaviour of the model and so on.
4.1.2 Standardised procedures and instructions were used allowing for replicability.
4.2 Weaknesses
4.2.1 Ethical issues- lack of informed consent, children may have suffered long-term consequences from being subjected to and imitating violent behaviour.
4.2.2 Snapshot study- cannot discover if a single exposure to aggression can have long-term effects.
4.2.3 Low ecological validity as the model and the child are strangers. This is unlike 'normal' modelling which often takes place within the family.
5 Results
5.1 Children who observed aggressive models made more imitative aggressive responses than those in the non-aggressive or control groups.
5.2 More partial and non-imitative aggression among children in aggressive condition. The difference for non-imitative aggression was small.
5.3 The girls in the aggressive conditions showed more physical aggression if the model was male but more verbal aggression if the model was female.
5.4 Boys were more likely to imitate same-sex models than girls.
5.5 Boys imitated more physically aggressive acts than girls. There was little difference in the verbal aggression between boys and girls.

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