Foundational Perspectives in Leading and Managing Organizations

Jonas Klint Westermann
Flashcards by Jonas Klint Westermann, updated more than 1 year ago
Jonas Klint Westermann
Created by Jonas Klint Westermann about 5 years ago
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CBS - Foundational Perspectives in Leading and Managing Organizations
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Vertical/horizontal differentiation. Vertical: Centralized or not? Horizontal: Functional, horizontal, matrix, geographical, etc
Vertical/Horizontal linkages. Vertical: Chain of command, rules, plans Horizontal: Integrator, etc.
Schein's iceberg Cultural artifacts. Values, attitudes and beliefs. Basic assumptions.
Relationship model between environment and strategy to corporate culture. Adaptability culture: Flexible environment, external focus. Mission culture: Stable environment, external focus. Clan culture: Flexible environment, internal focus. Bureaucratic culture: Internal focus, stable environment.
Deal & Kennedy culture types. Tough-guy, macho man culture: High risk, fast feedback. Bet the company culture: High risk, slow feedback. Work hard/play hard culture: Low risk, fast feedback. Process culture: Low risk, slow feedback.
Trait theory. Leaders are born, not made. Leaders have 6 traits in common: - Knowledge of the business - Honesty - Drive - Motivating - Self-confidence - Ability to understand the world
Transactional vs transformational leadership. Transactional: Maintain normal flow of operations. Status quo. Task-orientated, rules and plans essential. Transformational: Visioning new corporate future. Uses support, motivation, recognition.
Management vs leadership. Management: Budgetting, planning, organising. Leadership: Inspiring, motivating, communicating, setting direction. (they are complementary, one does not work without the other)
Weber's bureaucracy. Ability to remove favoritism and nepotism. Six charachteristics: - Rules - Specialization - Written communication - Seperation of position from position holder - Hierarchy of authority - Technically qualified
New control systems. Diagnostic control systems: Classic system. Control via goals ala revenues, profits, etc. Beliefs systems: Communicating the values and direction managers want the employees to take. Boundary systems: Tell people what NOT to do. Interactive control systems: Online control systems that gather data.
Balanced scorecard. Financial performance: Activities that add to the financial performance. Customer service: How the customers see the company and the customers' satisfaction. Internal business processes: Production and operating effectiveness. Learning and growth: E.g. how well resources/human capital are retained to encourage future growth.
Porter's competitive strategies. Low-cost leadership: E.g. RyanAir. Make it the cheapest. Differentiation: E.g. Apple. Make the products better. Focused low-cost: Make it the cheapest to a certain market/segment. Focused differentiation: Make it better to a certain market/segment.
Miles and Snow typology. Prospector: Seeks growth, innovation. Works best in dynamic environments. Defender: Seeks to keep market share, hold on to current customers. Works best in declining or stable environment. Analyzer: Mix of the two aforementioned. Reactor: Reacts to external environment.
Contingency effectiveness approach. Resource-based: Observes beginning of process, analyses if the organization obtains enough resources to remain competitive. Internal process: Looks internally. Goal approach: Focus on the output side. Does the firm reach its desired outputs?
LEAPS. Logos, Ethos, Agora, Pathos, Syzygy.
Cialdini's six principles. - Liking. - Reciprocity. - Social proof. - Consistency. - Authority. - Scarcity.
Team effectiveness model. Organizational and team environment: physical space, rewards, etc. Team design: Size, etc. Team process: Team development, cohesion, trust. Team effectiveness: Organizational and team environment --> Team design and team process --> Team effectiveness. And team design --> Team process.
Mintzberg's emergent strategy. Intended strategy --> Deliberate strategy --> External environment --> Realized strategy.
Kotter's eight steps. - Sense of urgency. - Guiding coalition. - Develop a plan/vision - Communicate vision. - Give employees the tools to execute vision. - Develop short-term goals. - Don't declare it a win too early. - Incorporate it into the corporate culture.
Framework for interorganizational relationships. - Resource dependence: Competitive and dissimilar. - Population ecology: Competitive and similar. - Collaborative network: Coorperative and dissimilar. - Institutionalism: Coorperative and similar.
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